Week 1


09:00    Introduction to course and description of various types of cathodic protection.

Students will be introduced to the course discipline which requires the keeping of pocket-books with notes during the instruction periods and the writing up and discussion period at the end of each day.

10:00    Electrical measurements.  Description and use of multimeter.

            A clear definition of the electrical measurements which are used in cathodic protection and a detailed study of the analogue and digital multimeters.

11:00    Ground resistance.  Megger and Wenner techniques

            A study of the effects of resistances on current flow according to Kirchoffs Laws and how this affects cathodic protection in the field.  Definition of the techniques available to measure the earth resistances.

12:00    Practice with megger and voltmeter on model.

            The class will split into pairs of students and repeat the demonstrations shown in the previous periods, but making notes of the results in their note books for later reporting and discussion.

13:00    Lunch

14:00    Formalised recording of information

            Introduction to the system of reporting that has proved most practical for interpretation and storage.

15:00    Outdoor practice with multimeters and meggers in set circumstances with results to be reported on forms.

17:00    Break

18:00    Discussion of days work and write up by students.


Week 1


09:00    Electrical fields, potential zones

            This period will be spent studying the electrical fields already existing in the earth and some of the causes.  The effect of cathodic protection on the potential of the soil and the results obtained on meters.

10:00    Practical exercise, making model electrical fields for experimental use

            The models are sand trays in which electrical fields are introduced in a variety of ways similar to those found in operational conditions.  These trays will subsequently be used throughout the course.

            This exercise will confirm the students basic understanding of the principles involved in earth current flow and cathodic protection monitoring procedures.

13:00    Lunch (pack-lunch)

14:00    Standard pipe to soil potential survey of 10 mile section of buried, coated, cathodically protected pipeline.

            The students will be taken by coach from test post to test post and conduct their own surveys, entering the results in their note-books for reporting and discussion later.

17:00    Break

18:00    Discussion and write up


Week 1




09:00    The use of two half-cells.

            A study will be made of the function of the half-cell in cathodic protection measurements.  A technique will be taught for finding coating faults on cathodically protected pipelines.

10:00    The recording voltmeter.  Description and instructions for use.

            Students will be able to set up and run recording voltmeters to plot voltage plans showing potential zones on models.

11:00    Setting up the recording voltmeter for standard surveys.

            Instructions on setting up the recording voltmeter for the polarised potential survey with the cathodic protection system switching to achieve "off" readings over a pipeline.

12:00    Practice (outside) in setting up recording voltmeter

            Individual practice in setting up the equipment and conducting a trial survey over a set area so that the results of each individual run may be discussed and kept by students for later reference.

13:00    Lunch

14:00    Pipeline and ground electrical potential fluctuations

            Study of fluctuations in potentials of pipeline and soil and the effects that these have on readings taken for the purpose of cathodic protection monitoring.

15:00    The use of two recording voltmeters for eliminating pipeline and ground fluctuation effects from results.

            Description and practice of the procedures for setting up the recording voltmeters in order to use the plot on one to eliminate the chronological fluctuations on the other.

16:00    Tabulation of results for easy analysis.

17:00    Break

18:00    Discussion and notes.


Week 1


09:00    Instruction and practice use of electrical generator.

            This is a practical instruction period to enable the students to set up a temporary electricity supply in the field for conducting tests.  It will also cover general maintenance requirements of generators.

10:00    Field trip to conduct a half-cell survey at a location where fluctuating voltages can be read on the meter.

            Students will be supplied with meters and required to conduct the traditional pipe-to-soil readings at a location known to be subject to voltage fluctuations.

11:00    Setting up and recording voltages between the pipeline metal and a copper/copper-sulphate half-cell.

13:00    Lunch

14:00    Technique for evaluating the location of a remote half-cell.

            A standard procedure can ensure that the best possible position is chosen to eliminate a floating reference which will give false readings.

15:00    Setting up and conducting surveys using three recording voltmeters to evaluate readings on a fluctuating pipeline.


17:00    Break

18:00    Discussion and notes



Week 1





09:00    Analysis and reporting results of surveys so far covered.



10:00    Discussion of established systems of monitoring and use of information previously        gathered.



11:00    Two half-cell grid survey to locate coating faults on an impressed current             protected pipeline.



12:00    Practical, on models, of the two half-cell survey.



13:00    Lunch



14:00    Re-run of week's work in the form of an exercise to use all the techniques             covered so far.



17:00    Run through individual notes.



18:00    Week-end break





Week 2





09:00     Coat and wrap.



10:00     Holiday detection.



11:00    Pearson type coating survey.



12:00    Practical Pearson type survey instructions.



13:00    Lunch



14:00    Description of pipeline construction methods past and present and effects on             coating conditions.


15:00    Film of pipeline under construction.


16:00    Specifications


17:00    Break



18:00    Discussion and notes





Week 2


09:00    Site visit with practical demonstration of Pearson type survey.

            This location will have a known coating fault that the students see detected by an experienced survey team.

10:00    Individual practice with Pearson type of equipment.

            The Pearson type survey is renowned for being operator dependant, but can be much improved by this procedure.

11:00    Coating condition survey with two half-cells to confirm Pearson findings.

12:00    Individual practice in both methods and tabulation of results.

            The class will be split into two main teams and be expected to perform a survey under             the critical eyes of the other students.

13:00    Lunch

14:00    Study of each individual survey result with analysis.

15:00    Reporting results by individuals in a standard form.

16:00    Re-visit site to gather missing information.

            It is inevitable that the students will omit some readings that they require during the analysis of their own results.  Under operational conditions these readings are sometimes expensive to obtain, and this period will serve to remind them to be very thorough when returning to their parent companies.

17:00    Break

18:00    Discussion and notes.


Week 2


09:00    Transformer-rectifiers

            The instructor will spend this period describing the various types of transformer-rectifiers, their construction and wiring in a workshop with an assortment of TRs on display.

10:00    Practical work

            Half the class will dismantle and re-assemble an oil-cooled transformer-rectifier.  Each student will perform this task and the transformer-rectifier.  The students will have changed with the other half of the class at 1100 hrs.

12:00    Design appreciation and circuit diagrams of transformer-rectifiers.

            This will be a period devoted to explaining technical matters that have arisen during the previous two hours.

13:00    Lunch

14:00    Sacrificial anodes

            A technical discussion of sacrificial anodes from the point of view of their galvanic qualities and specifications.

15:00    Design and monitoring of sacrificial anode systems on buried cross-country pipelines.

16:00    Practice in monitoring sacrificial systems using models and half-cell techniques.

            The class will study the potential zones which are present because of the sacrificial anodes and the effect that these have on meter readings.  The students will be required to complete a small survey and record the results, both on digital multimeters and using recording voltmeters.

17:00    Break

18:00    Discussion and notes


Week 2



09:00    Cathodic protection systems combining the two methods.

            The advantages of both sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection can be successfully combined, once there is a full understanding of some features of monitoring that will be described during this period.

10:00    Monitoring the combined methods and its effects on readings.

            A study will be made, using models and standard procedures, to interpret the indications given when surveying pipelines which are cathodically protected in this way.  The results will be recorded by each student.

11:00    Site visit to a pipeline which is protected by both impressed and sacrificial cathodic protection.

12:00    Individual surveys and recording voltmeter and the results will be kept by the individual students for discussion and reference.

13:00    Lunch

14:00    Off potential readings theory.

            Lecture on the theory of taking off potentials to remove the effect of the voltage drop in the soil caused by the passage of the cathodic protection current.

15:00    Off potential survey by students using model and three types of meters.

16:00    Presentation of results, by hand and by computer.

            Demonstration of computer handling of potential surveys and its advantages over processing the information by hand.  Mention of data logging and the latest available techniques for storage and analysis of survey results.  The improved accuracy and future possibilities will be discussed.

17:00    Break

18:00    Discussion and notes


Week 2


09:00    All morning site exercise combining all the field practices.

            This will give the students the opportunity to use all the techniques, that have been taught on the course, on sites specially chosen for their interesting features.  This can be regarded as a practical test of their ability, as each student will be required to work independently and make his own notes on site.  The course instructors will be present and will give written guidance instructors will be present and will give written guidance to the students if required.  Copies of these guidance notes will be included in the individual students course folder.

13:00    Lunch

14:00    Reporting of mornings work

            A formal report will be expected from each student and must be presented as if it were an operational survey report.  These reports will form the final section of the course folder and will give an indication, to the students parent companies, of the value of the course and the capability of the student.  There will be no other test or examination, as it is felt better to let the quality of the students own work speak for itself.

15:00    Discussion to settle any final questions from the students and evaluate the course as an aid to industry.

            Worthwhile suggestions arising during this session will be incorporated in future courses and questions that have not been answered during the course (as being in need of further research) will be written down and replies will be sent to all course members as soon as the relevant information becomes available.

16:00    Compiling course folders and revision

            Each individual will leave the course with a full set of notes on each subject, bound in a folder together with the results of his own work done during the exercises.

            He will receive a name and address list of all course members to facilitate a continuation of the flow of information from later experience.

            His name will be entered on a register as having attended the course, and this attendance will be confirmed if requested at any later date.

17:00    End of course..